Wednesday, 11 July 2012

Interview Questions for IMS



Computer Basic,MS Office And Internet

1.       What are the different inputs and outputs devices in a system?
       INPUT DEVICE                   OUTPUT DEVICE
        MOUSE                                  MONITER
        KEYBOARD                            SPEAKER
        CAMERA                                PRINTER     
2.       What are different functions of a computer?
there are four basic functions of a Computer. 

1. INPUT- you input data i.e. you provide data; set of instuctions. You input data through input devices which are keyboard, mouse, scanner,etc
2. PROCESSING- the computer processes it i.e. it manipulates the data which is done by the C.P.U
3. OUTPUT- After processing the data the computer displays the result , it gives an output. Output devices are the monitor, in the case of visual output. speakers, in the case of audio output, printers, etc
4. STORAGE- You can save your data for future use in the CPU itself which is stored in the computer's ROM. There are several other storage devices also like removeable disks , CDs, etc

3.       What are functions key on keyboard?
Commonly known as "function  ", F1 through F12 may have a variety of different uses or no use at all. Depending on the installed operating system and the software program currently open will change how each of these keys operate.

4.       What is numeric keypad in keyboard?
It is a group of keys located on the right side of the keyboard.  It looks like a calculator, because it has both number and symbols for mathematical equations.  It also has its own plus sign, minus sign, Enter key, Delete key, and Num lock key

5.       What is Internet?
The internet in simple terms is a network of the interlinked computer networking worldwide, which is accessible to the general public. These interconnected computers work by transmitting data through a special type of packet switching which is known as the IP or the internet protocol.
6.       What are the different applications of Internet?
Internet has many uses: 
for information, communication, entertainment, news, shopping, for online banks, e-commerce etc...
7.       What are the different web browsers available?
Various web browsers are avilable Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google chrome, Opera, Apple, and Safari.

8.       Which version of IE is available with Win 7 by default

9.       Why we need to configure mail client (outlook) on our system?
With most web hosting packages you will receive a certain number of email accounts or boxes. Even if you do not have a site yet, you can still secure a domain name and use the domain name for your email by having an email only account with the host company. Domain-based email addresses for you and your employees provide a professionalism that is not present with free email accounts such as Yahoo or AOL. Once you've chosen your email addresses and set them up with your domain's hosting company, you will need to add them to an email program such as Microsoft Outlook in order to check and organize your email

10.   Which mail client is available by default with Windows?
Windows live mail

11.   What are the different mail clients:
Outlook express, Windows mail, MS outlook, Mozilla mail, Evolution mail

12.   What are the requirements to configure outlook express/MS outlook?
Incoming and outgoing server’s IP address.
POP and SMTP port no
Mail ID
13.   How to backup outlook MS outlook
In the file menu, use import and export option.

14.   Differences between MS office 2003 and MS office 2007?
Office 2007 has-Different file extension, Menu tab has been replace by Ribbon, Different graphical interface, Object specific toolbar, live preview etc.

15.   What are other office packages available in market (non MS)?

16.   File extensions for MS word, excel and power point?
Extension for MS word- (.docx) , MS excel – (.xlsx) , Power point- (.pptx)
17.   What are the different page orientations in MS Word?

18.   In MS Excel, Combination of rows and columns is called…..

19.   Difference between Save and Save as
“Save as” is used to save document in different format/different location.

20.    Can we insert JPG picture in word document? If yes, then how?
YES…Using insert Tab

21.   What is hyperlink?
Shortcut link which enables you to navigate between different pages/applications

22.   Differences in CC and BCC in mailing recipient list?
CC: carbon copy, All recipient are Transparent
BCC: blind carbon copy: Not transparent. Person in BCC would be unable to track other recipient.

23.   What is macro (MS Word)?
In Microsoft Word and other programs, a macro is a saved sequence of command s or keyboard strokes that can be stored and then recalled with a single command or keyboard stroke

24.   What is the use of Pivot Table?
Excel pivot tables are very useful and powerful feature of MS Excel. They can be used to summarize, analyze, explore and present your data.
In plain English, it means, you can take the sales data with columns like salesman, region and product-wise revenues and use pivot tables to quickly find out how products are performing in each region.

25.   What is VLookup and HLookup?
VLookup searches down the leftmost column of a table for a match and returns
a value from a column to the right of the match on the same row.

HLookup searches left to right across a row of entries for a match and
returns a value from a row below the column the match was found in.

1.       Differences between Hardware, software and firmware
a.       Hardware: Hardware is the part of computing you can pick up, move around, open, and close.
b.      Software: Software provides the instructions that tell hardware what to do.
c.       Firmware: Software embedded into a hardware chip

2.       IDE & SATA devices
a.       IDE: 40 pin interface, slow speed, and parallel communication
b.      SATA: 7 pin interface, high speed and serial communication

3.       In RAM, what does DDR stands for?
DDR Stands for double data rate
4.       Latest motherboard & RAM
   Motherboard: Asus P8Z77-M
   RAM: DDR3

5.       Differences between DDR-I and DDR-II
On the physical side, DDR has a 184-pin DIMM interface and DDR2 has 240.
DDR2 runs cooler and has generally slower timings but is a lot faster than DDR1 in the end. DDR2 is capable of holding more ram on one DIMM

6.       Differences between DDR-II and DDR-III
a.       DDR-II: 240 pins, operating voltage 1.8 volt, Max FSB=800Mhz
b.      DDR-III: 240 pins, operating voltage 1.5 volt, Max FSB=2133Mhz

7.       What is FSB?
FSB is also known as the Processor Bus, Memory Bus, or System Bus and connects the CPU with the main memory and is used to connect to other components within the computer. The FSB can range from speeds of 66 MHz, 133 MHz, 100 MHz, 266 MHz, 400 MHz, and up. The FSB is now another important consideration when looking at purchasing a computer Motherboard or a new computer.

8.       What is chipset?
a.       A number of integratedHYPERLINK "" HYPERLINK ""circuits designed to perform one or more related functions. For example, one chipset may provide the basic functions of a modem while another provides the CPU functions for a computer. Newer chipsets generally include functions provided by two or more older chipsets. In some cases, older chipsets that required two or more physical chips can be replaced with a chipset on one chip.

9.       Different manufactures of Processors, Motherboard and Hard Disk
      Processors: - AMD, Intel
     Motherboard:- Asus , Gigabyte
     HDD: - WD, Seagate, Hitachi, etc

10.   Something about display cards
a.       A graphics card, also known as a video card, is a piece of hardware installed in a computer that is responsible for rendering the image on the computer’s monitor or display screen.

11.   How to test power supply
  Testing a power supply is an important step when troubleshooting many issues,        most obviously when your computer is having trouble starting.

12.   Different voltages in SMPS?

13.   What is BIOS? How to enter into CMOS configuration setup?
A set of computer instructions in firmware that control input and output operations
Press ‘delete’ key on startup to enter in bios.

14.   Difference between CMOS and BIOS?
The BIOS and CMOS are two different components on the motherboard.
BIOS- The BIOS on the motherboard contains the instructions on how the computer boots and is only modified or updated with BIOS updates,
CMOS- The CMOS is powered by a CMOS battery and contains your system settings and is modified and changed by entering the CMOS Setup.

15.   What are the different types of printers?
a.       Laser
b.      Dot- Matrix
c.       Ink-Jet or Bubble-Jet
d.      Dye diffusion printers

16.   How to take test printout from Dot matrix printer?
17.   What are the different types of Hard Disks?
IDE : Integrated Drive Electronics. IDE drives are also known as PATA drives (Parallel advance technology attachment)
 : Serial advance technology attachment 
SCSI : Small Computer System Interface. SCSI is pronounced as scuzzy.
 SAS : Serial Attached SCSI

18.   Differences between PCI and PCI express
PCI- is a standard for connecting a lot of devices inside your computer to extend its capabilities. Devices like sound cards, modems, NIC, TV Tuners, and some video cards have at some point or another have used the PCI port.

19.   About SCSI devices (HDD)
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices. The SCSI standards define commands, protocols, and electrical and optical interfaces. SCSI is most commonly used for hard disks and tape drives, but it can connect a wide range of other devices, including scanners and CD drives

20.   Different ports of notebook?
Different ports in laptop are Display Port, eSATA, Ethernet (RJ-45), Express Card,
FireWire (IEEE 1394)

21.   What are the differences between a Desktop & Laptop
a.       Desktop: large size, No mobility features, No built-in input output devices, No built-in power backup, low cost
b.      Laptop/notebook: Compact in size, Mobility, Built-in input and output devices, power backup, high cost.

22.   What are important features (Parameters) which you need to take care, while purchasing a notebook?
a.       Display/Screen Size & technology
b.      Power backup
c.       Built-in devices-track-ball, WLAN and BT module, webcam.
d.      OS support
e.      Available IO ports
f.        Cost
g.       Weight
h.      Option for up-gradation

23.   What is OS?
a.       OS act as interface between User (or application) and hardware components.

24.   What are the functions of OS?
a.       Input- output management
b.      Memory control
c.       File-system management
d.      Process management

25.   How to show hidden files?
a.       In windows explorer, Go to Tools-----folder options---View---Show hidden files and folders.

26.   What is a device driver?
a.       Driver is a piece of software designed in low level language and provided by hardware vendor used to operate a particular hardware device/component.
b.      Different driver set might be required for different operating systems.

27.   What is windows explorer?
Windows Explorer is a file manager application that is included with releases of the Microsoft Windows operating system from Windows 95 onwards. It provides a graphical user interface for accessing the file systems

28.   What are the different editions of Win XP and W7
Windows 7 Starter, home Basic, home premium, professtional, enterprise, ultimate

29.   What is a service pack?
a.       Collection of updates, bugs and fixes provided by MS, freely downloadable.

30.   What is difference between FAT32 and NTFS?
a.       NTFS has additional features like Large disk support, large volume size, EFS (encryption), Disk quota and NTFS permissions which Fat doesn’t have.

31.   What are the 5 differences between windows XP and Win 7?
1)      No e-mail Client, 2) Aero Desktop, 3) Documents and Settings, 4) Start Menu, 5) Ribbon,

32.   In Windows XP, you have an error message-"NTLDR is missing". How to rectify this error?
If you get the "NTLDR is Missing" error, follow these instructions:

 1. Load Windows XP CD into CD drive.
 2. Make sure BIOS is set to boot to CD drive.
 3. Boot the computer from CD.
 4. At menu, press "R" to load Recovery Console.
 5. Select the installation to be fixed.
      *The following instructions assume CD-ROM is labeled as drive D and the hard drive    partition the windows installation is on is labeled as drive C. Replace the letters accordingly.
6. Type "COPY D:\i386\ntldr C:\" and press ENTER.
7. Type "COPY D:\i386\ C:\" and press ENTER.
8. Remove CD and type "EXIT" and press ENTER (to reboot your computer).

33.   Why we repair windows?
34.   What are the different methods to repair windows?
35.   Backup, Importance of backup & backup media
36.   What is virtual memory? How to change it?
37.   After installing Windows, No any icons or taskbar appears on screen, What can be the reason?
a.       Ans.: Explorer is not started

38.   What is task manager? Various functions of task manager?
What is task manager: Task Manager shows you the programs, processes, and services that are currently running on your computer. You can use Task Manager to monitor your computer’s performance or to close a program that is not responding.
Various functions of task manager:

Windows Task Manager is a standard utility of the OS’s Microsoft Windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista/W7. It allows you monitoring in real-time running applications and started processes, evaluate CPU and network usage.
-In order to open the Task Manager on the keyboard press simultaneously the buttons CTRL+ALT+DEL or CTRL+SHIFT+ESC.
The open window displays four tabs which correspond to four activities monitored by the Task Manager: Applications, Processes, Performance (usage of system recourses) and Networking. Processes is the default opening tab.

(Basic Networking)
1.       What are different Networking components?
a.       Systems (Client, Server), Node, Connecting device, Media etc.

2.       What is networking?
a.       Process of connecting two or more systems so that they can share resources and information (data)

3.       What is need/requirement of Networking?
a.       To share resources-Printer, CD/DVD disk drives
b.      To share information-Data

4.       What is a printer? How to share it?
a.       Printer is a device used to tale hard copy of documents from its soft copy.
b.      How to share-devices and printers---add printer----Network printer or
c.       Run--\\<printer IP>   enter and then double click on printer.

5.       What are the networking models?
There are three models in networking.
           Centralized computing
           Peer-to-peer networks
           Client-server networks

6.       Workgroup vs Domain Networking.
in a workgroup: All computers are peers; no computer has control over another computer.
Each computer has a set of user accounts. To use any computer in the workgroup, you must have an account on that computer.
There are typically no more than ten to twenty computers.
All computers must be on the same local network or subnet.
In adomain group: One or more computers are servers. Network administrators use servers to control the security and permissions for all computers on the domain. This makes it easy to make changes because the changes are automatically made to all computers.
If you have a user account on the domain, you can log on to any computer on the domain without needing an account on that computer.
There can be hundreds or thousands of computers.
The computers can be on different local networks.
7.       What are networking devices i.e. Hub, Switch, Router, Repeater, Bridge, L3 switch?
8.       Difference between hub and switch, switch and bridge, layer 3 Switch and router.
9.       What is Media type,   wired and wireless difference?
Wired and wireless difference: A wired connection obviously requires a cable with the proper connector. A wireless connection uses frequency transmission as its media (no cable). 
To the user, it doesn't make any difference; they see the same connections to the network.
What is Media type:

10.   What is wireless media, frequency, range, standard?
11.   What is UTP cables and categories, connector?
UTP, or Unshielded Twisted Pair, is a type of cable used in telecommunications and computer networks

12.   What is difference between RJ 11 and RJ 45?
The main difference between these two is in where they are actually used. RJ45 jacks are used in networking, where you connect computers or other network elements to each other. RJ11 is the cable connector that is being used in telephone sets.

13.   Types of cables crimping- straight, cross and roll over cables?
14.   What is co-axial and connector?
15.   What are the factors affecting in choosing cable types?
16.   What is a protocol? Types?
“Set of Rules” To Setup Error Free Communication 
Sets of rule, means how to transfer data from one location to other. Ethernet
Local Talk
Token Ring

Protocol are rules & regulations established for communication
Or standards established for communication, protocol defines “How system communicate”
Protocol suite- is a group/ collection of different protocols

17.   What is Topology?
Map of network layout

18.   What is IOS OSI Model?
a.       OSI model is reference model for network communication

19.   Device and layers in OSI model




Router, Switch, Hub
Data link
Switch, Bridge, Access point, NIC
Hub, NIC, Repeater

20.   What are difference between MAC and IP address?
a.       MAC- 48 bit, represented by 12 hexa character,Physical address, Cant modify, Integrated with Hw
b.      IP: 32 bit binary address, unique in network, Used to identify a system in network, Configurable

21.   MAC-Address

22.   IP address/class full & classless
Internet Protocol (IP) addresses are unique numeric identifiers that are needed by every device that connects to the Internet.

23.    Unicast, multicast & broadcast
UNICAST: the messages goes to a single computer.
BROADCAST: the message goes to all the computers in a network.
MULTICAST: the message goes to a group of computers
(basically, those that have registered themselves to participate in the multicast group).

24.   What is connection oriented and connection less communication?
In CONNECTIONLESS communication there is no need to establish connection between source (sender) and destination (receiver). But in connection-oriented communication connection must established before data transfer.
Connection-oriented communication is more reliable then connectionless communication.
In CONNECTION-ORIENTED communication information can be resend if there is an error in receiver side ( missing data, corrupt data etc. ).But in connectionless communication it is not possible because the destination does not inform the source about data is received or not.

25.   How we can differentiate LAN and WAN?
A LAN is a Local Area Network. Local is generally referred to a network contained within a building or an office or a campus.
A WAN is connecting two or more computers over a broad area to form a cable network between them.

26.   What are LAN technologies?
27.   What are WAN technologies?
28.   What are signaling techniques-baseband and broadband?
BASEBAND transmissions typically use digital signaling over a single wire; the transmissions themselves take the form of either electrical pulses or light.
BROADBAND uses analog signals in the form of optical or electromagnetic waves over multiple transmission frequencies.

29.   What is CSMA/CD?
Short for Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection, a set of rules determining how network devices respond when two devices attempt to use a data channel simultaneously (called a collision). Standard Ethernet networks use CSMA/CD to physically monitor the traffic on the line at participating stations.

30.   What is CSMA/CA?
Short for Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance, a network contention protocol that listens to a network in order to avoid collisions, unlike CSMA/CD that deals with network transmissions once collisions have been detected. CSMA/CA contributes to network traffic because, before any real data is transmitted, it has to broadcast a signal onto the network in order to listen for collision scenarios and to tell other devices not to broadcast.
1.       What is internet, intranet, extranet?
INTRANET is shared content accessed by members within a single organization.
EXTRANET is shared content accessed by groups through cross-enterprise boundaries.
INTERNET is global communication accessed through the Web.

2.       What is TCP/IP Model?
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the basic communication language or protocol of the Internet.
TCP/IP model is an implementation of OSI reference model. IT has four Layers. They are: Physical layer, Network layer, Transport layer and Application layer

3.       What is Encapsulation?
Encapsulation is one of the fundamental principles of object-oriented programming.
Encapsulation is a process of hiding all the internal details of an object from the outside world
Encapsulation is the ability to hide its data and methods from outside the world and only expose data and methods that are required.

4.       What are ARP and RARP?
ARP stands for address resolve protocol its resolve MAC address with ip address
RARP stands for Reverse Address Resolution Protocol,
When a new machine set up, its RARP client (diskless client) program requests from
The RARP server on the route to be sent its up address.
1.       ARP: Address Resolution Protocol
-Resolve MAC Address With IP Address
-Layer 2 Data link layer
2.       RARP: Reverse Address Resolution protocol
When A new Machine Is Set up RARP Client Diskless Client Program Requests From The RARP Server On The Router To Be Sent It’s IP Address.

5.       What is Cisco layer model?
6.       Router ports & their description.
7.       What is Router booting sequence?
1. The router performs a POST. The POST tests the hardware to verify that all components of the device    are operational and present. For example, the POST  checks for the different interfaces on the router. The POST is stored in and run from ROM (read-only memory).
2. The bootstrap looks for and loads the Cisco IOS software. The bootstrap is a program in ROM that is used to execute programs. The bootstrap program is  responsible for finding where each IOS program is located and then loading the file. By default, the IOS software is loaded from flash memory in all Cisco routers. Other possible locations of the IOS image are a TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) server, or the Mini-IOS (the mini IOS is a stripped-down version  of IOS in ROM).
3. The IOS software looks for a valid configuration file stored in NVRAM. This file is called startup-config.
4. If a startup-config file is in NVRAM, the router will load and run this file. If a valid startup-config file is not in NVRAM, IOS will display System Configuration      setup.
5. Once the startup-config configuration is loaded, IOS will present CLI interface in User mode.

8.       What is config register & its default value?
The configuration register can be used to change router behavior in several ways, such as:
·         how the router boots (into ROMmon, NetBoot)
·         options while booting (ignore configuration, disable boot messages)
·         console speed (baud rate for a terminal emulation session)
Note: If the baud rate is set different than the default rate, odd characters are seen on CLI. Check table1 to set baud rates for different Confreg values.
The configuration register can be set from configuration mode using the config-register command. From ROMmon, use the confreg command. Issue the show version command to view the current setting of the configuration register:

9.       What is IP address. Public IP vs  Private IP
Private add- is a network address which have restricted access closed (eg. noida server , indiacan)
Public add- is any address which can be connected through internet by any one open (eg,google, yahoo etc)

10.   TCP vs UDP
TCP-Transmission Control Protocol
Its create a session between protocol, it’s a layer 4 Protocol, connection oriented protocol
(reliable communication) flow control sequencing error correction.
UDP-User Datagram Protocol
Layer 4 protocol, connectionless/No sequencing/unreliable, No acknowledgement of data,
Very “lightweight Protocol”(Header is very small)

11.   What is subnetting & its use?
Subnetting is a process by which bits from ‘node’ portion of ip address are used to create
Small subnet work.
12.   What is VLSM?
Variable Length Subnet Masking - VLSM -  is a technique that allows network administrators to divide an IP address space into subnets of different sizes, unlike simple same-size Subnetting.

13.   IOS version in routers?

14.   How to install & backup router IOS
The following steps have to be done:
o    Connect Admin-Workstation with a serial cable to the firewall for the configuration
o    Install TFTP-Server and Terminal emulation Software on Admin-Workstation
o    Save current CISCO IOS from Router to the Admin-Workstation
o    Download CISCO Firewall IOS to the Router using TFTP
o    Save current Configuration file from Router to the Admin-Workstation using TFTP
o    Create Configuration file and download it to the Router using TFTP
o    backup router IOS
o    Backup Cisco IOS to TFTP server and you can restore it later when your IOS damage.
o    Requirement:
- PC with TFTP Server (IP Address
- Network connection to Cisco Router
o    Router>
Router#copy flash tftp
Source filename []? d2600.bin
Address or name of remote host []?
Destination filename [d2600.bin]? backup_d2600.bin
3289170 bytes copied in 47.668 secs (69982 bytes/sec)
o    Finish
15.   How to check router's hardware information.
16.   What is telnet?
Telnet is a protocol that allows you to connect to remote computer (called host)
Or (remote host)

17.   What is BRI and PRI?
Basic rate interface (BRI) and primary rate interface (PRI) are both integrated services digital network (ISDN) services. They each use the B and D channels of data communication however, there are some differences between them.

18.   What is routing?  What is static and dynamic routing?
In internetworking, the process of moving a packet of data from source todestination. Routing is usually performed by a dedicated device called a router. Routing is a key feature of the Internet because it enables messages to pass from one computer to another and eventually reach the target machine.
·         Manually set up a route in a dormant manner. 
·         Stable. 
·         Has no impact made by traffic and transmission failures. 
·         Creates no traffic derived from routing protocols.
·         Automatically sets up a route. 
·         Can respond to the changes of the network. 
·         Can automatically select the optimized route. 
·         Can automatically select the backup route.

19.   Types of routing protocol?
Routing protocols are two types
1. Interior routing protocols
2. Exterior routing protocols

Interior routing protocols is -
          1. rip
          2. Ospf
          3. Igrp
          4. Eigrp
          5. is-is

Exterior routing protocol is
         1. Exterior gateway protocols
         2. border gateway protocols

20.   What is hop count?
Hop count is usually used by the rip protocol. It denotes the number of routers through which the data is transfferes from host to destination.

21.   What is AD value?
AD defines the Trust worthyness of a routing protocol.
for ex. for static route it is 1
         for RIP it is 120
         for ospf it is 110
         for eigrp it is 90
so for ex. if both static route and RIP is used by a router
than it will trust on static route because it AD is 1

22.   What is convergence time?
A.) The update time
B.) The time it takes to reload a router
C.) The time it takes for a packet to reach its destination
D.) The time is takes for all routers update their tables
after a change takes place

23.   What is difference between RIP1 and RIP2 & explain timer?
There are only three main Differences between Rip1 and Rip2
RIP version 1:
In Rip Version 1 use Broadcast and it is Class Full Routing protocol. No Authentication  Required in Rip Version 1

RIP version 2:
In Rip version 2 use Multicast ( and it is class less routing protocol. Authentication Required in Rip Version 2

24.   What are problems of RIP?
25.   What is difference between RIP and EIGRP?
supports 15 hopcouts 16 is unreachable
classfull protocol
full routing table exchanged
hello timers every 30 seconds

supports 255 hops
classless protocol
missing routes are exchanged
hello timer every 5 seconds
supports multi routed protocals like (IP, IPX AND APPLE TALK)

26.   What is AS number?
Within the Internet, an Autonomous System (AS) is a collection of connected Internet Protocol (IP) routing prefixes under the control of one or more network operators that presents a common, clearly defined routing policy to the Internet.

27.   What is EIGRP? What routing protocols are Cisco Proprietary?
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol - (EIGRP) is a Cisco proprietary routing protocol loosely based on their original IGRP. EIGRP is an advanced distance-vector routing protocol, with optimizations to minimize both the routing instability incurred after topology changes, as well as the use of bandwidth and processing power in the router. Routers that support EIGRP will automatically redistribute route information to IGRP neighbors by converting the 32 bit EIGRP metric to the 24 bit IGRP metric.

28.   Algorithms of all routing protocols?
Many properties separate routing protocols from each other. Characteristics such as the speed with which they operate, the way they conduct updates, and the information they gather to perform their job make routing protocols unique. However, one feature that routing protocols share with one another is their routing algorithm. While many different routing protocols are available for you to use on your network, they all utilize one of only two different algorithms.
29.   What is OSPF?
Short for Open Shortest Path First, an interior gateway routing protocol developed for IP networks based on the shortest path first or link-state algorithm.

30.   How many Types of Switch?
1. Normal Switch
2. Manageable Switch
31.   What are functions of a Switch?
In a telecommunications network, a switch is a device that channels incoming data from any of multiple input ports to the specific output port that will take the data toward its intended destination.

32.   What is VLAN?
VLAN refers to Virtual Local Area Network is a virtual LAN that extends its functionalities beyond a single LAN.  Through VLAN a network is divided into different logical segments known as broadcast domains. The computers in the VLAN acts as they are connected with the same LAN segment even they are located on the different network segments. In the VLAN, computers can move from one location to another and they can still be the part of the same VLAN.

33.   What is DLCI?
Short for data link connection identifier. A number of a private or switched virtual circuit in a Frame Relay network that tells the Frame Relay how to route the data. The DLCI field identifies which logical circuit the data travels over.

34.   What is catalyst switch?
Catalyst is the brand name for a variety of network Switches sold by Cisco Systems. While commonly associated with Ethernet switches, a number of different interfaces have been available throughout the history of the brand.
1.       What are booting files & boot sequence of window?
2.       What are differences between 2003 and 2008 server?
3.       What is active directory and its data base?
4.       Use of SYSVOL folder?
All active directory data base security related information store in SYSVOL folder and its only created on NTFS partition. 
The Sysvol folder on a Windows domain controller is used to replicate file-based data among domain controllers. Because junctions are used within the Sysvol folder structure, Windows NT file system (NTFS) version 5.0 is required on domain controllers throughout a Windows distributed file system (DFS) forest.

5.       What is work group and domain networking?
All computers are peers; no computer has control over another computer.
Each computer has a set of user accounts. To use any computer in the workgroup, you must have an account on that computer.
There are typically no more than ten to twenty computers.
All computers must be on the same local network or subnet.
One or more computers are servers. Network administrators use servers to control the security and permissions for all computers on the domain. This makes it easy to make changes because the changes are automatically made to all computers.
If you have a user account on the domain, you can log on to any computer on the domain without needing an account on that computer.
There can be hundreds or thousands of computers.
The computers can be on different local networks.

6.       Backup and types of Backup?
Backup is a utility that you can use to back up and restore user data.
               Copy backup
               Daily backup
               Differential backup
               Incremental backup
               Normal backup

7.       System state backup.
The Windows system state backup is in effect a backup of the complete system. Everything that is present within the system will be copied as backup so that no data or information is lost whenever there is a system crash or corruption of the driver files, if certain system files stop the system from functioning properly. To perform a forensic analysis of evidence on a Windows system, backing up a system's registry is insufficient. An extensive backup of data is essential so that the system can be secured against any malfunctions.
8.       How to take active dir backup?
9.       What is basic disk and dynamic disk?
Basic Disk Storage
Basic storage uses normal partition tables supported by MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows 95, Microsoft Windows 98, Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition (Me), Microsoft Windows NT, Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP. A disk initialized for basic storage is called a basic disk. A basic disk contains basic volumes, such as primary partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives. Additionally, basic volumes include multidisk volumes that are created by using Windows NT 4.0 or earlier, such as volume sets, stripe sets, mirror sets, and stripe sets with parity. Windows XP does not support these multidisk basic volumes. Any volume sets, stripe sets, mirror sets, or stripe sets with parity must be backed up and deleted or converted to dynamic disks before you install Windows XP Professional.
      Dynamic Disk Storage
         Dynamic storage is supported in Windows XP Professional, Windows 2000 and        Windows Server 2003. A disk initialized for dynamic storage is called a dynamic disk. A    dynamic disk contains dynamic volumes, such as simple volumes, spanned volumes, striped    volumes, mirrored volumes, and RAID-5 volumes. With dynamic storage, you can perform    disk and volume management without the need to restart Windows.
Note: Dynamic disks are not supported on portable computers or on Windows XP Home Edition-based computers.
10.   Disk mirroring, RAID-5, RAID10
§  Minimum 3 disks.
§  Good performance ( as blocks are striped ).
§  Good redundancy ( distributed parity ).
§  Best cost effective option providing both performance and redundancy. Use this for DB that is heavily read oriented. Write operations will be slow.

§  Minimum 4 disks.
§  This is also called as “stripe of mirrors”
§  Excellent redundancy ( as blocks are mirrored )
§  Excellent performance ( as blocks are striped )
§  If you can afford the dollar, this is the BEST option for any mission critical applications (especially databases).

11.   What is user profile.
a.       Local
b.      Roaming
c.       Mandatory
12.   What is DNS .
a.       NetBIOS, DNS zones
b.      DNS queries
c.       DNS records
d.      DNS zones
13.   What is DHCP?
a.       DORA
b.      APIPA
c.       Lease
d.      Scope
e.      Super scope
f.        Renewal Process
14.   What is RIS (remote installation service) & its requirement?
Short  for Remote Installation Service, a feature of Microsoft's Windows 2000 Server. RIS allows a network administrator to install the Windows 2000operating system to any number of client computers simultaneously from a central location.
15.   What is VPN?
Virtual private network is a network that uses a public telecommunication infrastructure &
Their technology such as the internet

16.   What is sharing permission & NTFS permissions?
Access to a folder on a file server can be determined through two sets of permission entries: the share permissions set on a folder and the NTFS permissions set on the folder (which can also be set on files). Share permissions are often used for managing computers with FAT32 file systems, or other computers that do not use the NTFS file system.
Share permissions and NTFS permissions are independent in the sense that neither changes the other. The final access permissions on a shared folder are determined by taking into consideration both the Share permission and the NTFS permission entries. The more restrictive permissions are then applied.

17.   How to configure outlook express/MS outlook?

18.   How to backup outlook express/MS outlook
1.       What is difference between Linux and Window?
All flavors of Windows come from Microsoft. Linux come from different companies like LIndows , Lycoris, Red Hat, SuSe, Mandrake, Knopping, Slackware.
Windows must boot from a primary partition. Linux can boot from either a primary partition or a logical partition inside an extended partition. Windows must boot from the first hard disk. Linux can boot from any hard disk in the computer.
Linux is freely available for desktop or home use but Windows is expensive. For server use, Linux is cheap compared to Windows. Microsoft allows a single copy of Windows to be used on one computer. You can run Linux on any number of computers.

2.       Redhat vs Fedora
Both the Fedora and Red are open source technologies. Fedora is built by the community ( for the benefit of the community. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is developed by Red Hat with the explicit intent of being used as an enterprise IT platform.

3.       What is a shell and its type?
A shell is an environment in which we can run our commands, programs, and shell scripts. There are different flavors of shells, just as there are different flavors of operating systems. Each flavor of shell has its own set of recognized commands and functions.
      There are 13 types of shell:
·         sh: the Bourne shell
·         ash: The Almquist shell
·         dash: Debian Almquist shell
·         bash: Bash is a Unix shell
·         fish: fish is a Unix shell
·         ksh: The Korn shell
·         csh: The C shell
·         tcsh: tcsh (pronounced “TC-Shell” or “T-shell”)
·         es: The es shell
·         rc: rc is the command line interpreter for Version 10 Unix, Plan 9, and Inferno operating systems.
·         scsh:
·         sash: Stand-alone shell
·         zsh: The Z shell

The shell is a user program or it is an environment provided for user interaction.
It is a command language interpreter that executes commands read from the standard input device such as keyboard or from a file.
The shell gets started when you log in or open a console (terminal).
Quick  and dirty way to execute utilities.
The shell is not part of system kernel, but uses the system kernel to execute programs, create files etc.
Several shells are available for Linux including:

·                         Bourne Shell

·                   C Shell

·                  TC Shell

·                 Korn Shell

·                Bourne-Again Shell

4.       Differences between ext2,ext3 and ext4?
 · Ext2 stands for second extended file system.
· it was introduced in 1993. Developed  by Remy Card.
· this was developed to overcome the limitation of the original ext file system.
· Ext2 does not have journaling feature.
· on flash drives, usb drives, ext2 is recommended, as it doesn't need to do the over head of journaling.
· Maximum individual file size can be from 16 GB to 2 TB
· Overall ext2 file system size can be from 2 TB to 32 TB
· Ext3 stands for third extended file system.
· it was introduced in 2001. Developed  by Stephen Tweedie .
· starting from Linux Kernel 2.4.15 ext3 was available.
· the main benefit of ext3 is that it allows journaling.
· Journaling has a dedicated area in the file system, where all the changes are tracked. When the system crashes, the possibility of file system corruption is less because of journaling.
· Maximum individual file size can be from 16 GB to 2 TB
· Overall ext3 file system size can be from 2 TB to 32 TB
· there are three types of journaling available in ext3 file system.
 Journal - Metadata and content are saved in the journal.
Ordered - Only metadata is saved in the journal. Metadata are journaled only after writing the content to disk. This is the default.
Write back - Only metadata is saved in the journal. Metadata might be journaled either before or after the content is written to the disk.
 You can convert a ext2 file system to ext3 file system directly (without backup/restore).
· Ext4 stands for fourth extended file system.
·  It was introduced in 2008.
· Starting from Linux Kernel 2.6.19 ext4 was available.
· Supports huge individual file size and overall file system size.
· Maximum individual file size can be from 16 GB to 16 TB
· Overall maximum ext4 file system size is 1 EB (exabyte). 1 EB = 1024 PB (petabyte). 1 PB = 1024 TB (terabyte).
· Directory can contain a maximum of 64,000 subdirectories (as opposed to 32,000 in ext3)
· you can also mount an existing ext3 fs as ext4 fs (without having to upgrade it).
· several other new features are introduced in ext4: multiblock allocation, delayed allocation, journal checksum. fast fsck, etc. All you need to know is that these new features have improved the performance and reliability of the filesystem when compared to ext3.
· In ext4, you also have the option of turning the journaling feature "off".

5.       What are permissions and their types?
The basics of file ownership and permissions on Linux. Learn to understand who are the owners of  a file or directory, how the file permissions work and how you can view them, and learn how to set basic file permissions yourself.
Permission are used in Linux for files, directories and programs. If you have ever used any Linux operating system like ubuntu, knoppix, fedora, etc.  

6.       What is kick start?
The Red Hat Kickstart installation method [1] is used primarily (but not exclusively) by the Red Hat Enterprise Linux operating system to automatically perform unattended operating system installation and configuration. Red Hat publishes Cobbler as a tool to automate the Kickstart configuration process.

7.       What is SELinux?
Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is a Linux feature that provides the mechanism for supporting access control security policies
SELinux is an access control implementation for the Linux kernel.
As an administrator, you define rules in user space and if the Linux kernel has been compiled with SELinux support, those rules will be adhered to by the kernel.

8.       RPM vs YUM
1. RPM is a package manager while YUM is a frontend that can be used with RPM.
2. The RPM package manager is unable to track dependencies while YUM can.
9.       How to take backup? How to schedule backup?
10.   What are scheduler programs in linux?
The new Linux scheduler extends scheduling capabilities by introducing scheduling classes and also simplifies debugging by improving schedule statistics.

11.   What are mail servers in linux?
12.   What is PAM?
Pluggable Authentication Module
A method of separating the authentication code from each application responsible for authenticating users.

13.   What is IPTables?
iptables is a user space application program that allows a system administrator to configure the tables provided by the Linux kernel firewall (implemented as different Netfilter modules) and the chains and rules it stores.

14.   DNS package